There are no treatments that are completely free of risk. In an IVF cycle there are the following risks:


The risk of miscarriage after a positive pregnancy test alone is approximately 10-20%. This is no different to that after a normal conception. Once the pregnancy sac has been seen and the fetal heart action identified then the risk of miscarriage is substantially less. The risk of a congenital or genetic abnormality in babies born after IVF has not been higher than that in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Your personal risk is more likely to relate to your age, your family history and whether or not you have a multiple pregnancy. Please see the section below multiple pregnancies above.

Risk of an ectopic pregnancy:

The embryos are not ready to implant at the time of their replacement. At that time they are in a very small volume of fluid which we expect to spread like a thin film on the surface of the lining of your womb. The embryo may sit in a fold of the lining of the uterus until it reaches the stage of implantation. The risk of embryo floating away in the direction of the fallopian tube exists in all patients. In normal circumstances we expect that the fine hair in the tube that beat in the direction of the womb will prevent such a migration. However in some cases this may not happen and the embryo enters the tube. Unable to return to implant in the uterus and especially in women with damaged tubes, it may attach itself to the tube and thus a tubal pregnancy occurs. If left undiagnosed, the tube may rupture and internal bleeding may take place. We endeavour to make an early diagnosis by performing an ultrasound scan at 7 weeks of pregnancy (3 weeks after your pregnancy test).


  1. It is therefore important to attend for the pregnancy test even if you have bled and for the scan after a positive test. If a pregnancy sac is not seen on scan, a blood test is taken to measure the pregnancy hormone (hCG) level in your blood. You may be asked to attend for more tests after a few days interval. If this level is rising or static then we may perform a laparoscopy.
  2. If you are unlucky and have a tubal pregnancy then you will require the removal of the tube. We may also counsel you regarding the future of your remaining tube in case it is already known to be irreparably damaged or is found to be such at surgery. We advise you to consider removal of both tubes in those circumstances in order to avoid a recurrence of this complication in future. This is an important decision as it is sterilising and no steps are taken with out your written consent and complete agreement.
  3. For the operation you will be admitted to St James’s to prevent an untoward occurrence whilst travelling. The risk of an ectopic pregnancy is approximately 3-4%.
  4. Occasionally you can have a combined intrauterine and an ectopic pregnancy (heterotopic pregnancy). These are more difficult to diagnose. If present then often but not always, the tubal pregnancy can be removed with out harming the uterine pregnancy.
  5. We perform a risk assessment for this complication too in our pre-assessments. If you are already known to have damaged tubes you may choose to have removal of the tubes (salpingectomy operation) performed before the treatment cycle in order to minimise the risk of this complication. This is a sterilising procedure and future pregnancies will only be possible after IVF. Therefore you have to be completely at terms with your infertility if you undertake this procedure. It is performed in most cases laparoscopically (key hole method) and you do not need prolonged recovery or delay to treatment afterwards.

Risk of equipment failure:

The trust maintains service contracts for all equipment that is regularly serviced. There are also many standard operating procedures in the laboratory that help us have an early warning for problems. Despite all our efforts and very uncommonly equipment failure may sometimes lead to loss of eggs or embryos. This is a ‘Category A’ incident that will be immediately notified to HFEA, the trust and you. There would usually be a thorough investigation and steps taken to prevent a recurrence of similar problems. The HFEA also operates an Alert system which we use to learn from incidents elsewhere.

Risk of a multiple pregnancy:

Most assisted conception procedures carry with them the risk of a multiple pregnancy. Please read the section on the number of embryos to be transferred and multiple pregnancies on page …where this risk has been discussed in greater detail.